• pain when urination
  • frequent urination
  • feeling the need to urinate despite having an empty bladder
  • haematuria


  • hold the bladder for too long
  • Do not drink enough water
  • Women who have frequent sexual activity. As female urethra is short and close to vagina and anus, bacteria can be easily goes into urethra during sex
  • Women who have diabetes mellitus
  • Women who have congenital abnormality of the urinary system. These are uncommon


  • Mid-stream urine for culture
  • cystoscopy to rule out pathology


  • For full course antibiotic therapy, antibiotics should be provided by family doctor
  • if no fluid restriction, should have 1.5-2L/ fluid intake per day
  • Wipe perineum from front to back
  • Can take cranberry juice or food which is rich in vitamin C