Symptoms

  • Involuntary urinary leakage accompanied by or immediately preceded by urgency
  • signs and symptoms include frequency of urine, urgency, increased in day time frequency, nocturia

Causes

  • Actual cause not well known. It may be cause by instability of detrusor muscle or damage of Central Nervous System inhibitory pathways leading to involuntary urinary leakage

Investigation

  • After excluding urinary tract infection and other causes, Urodynamic Study and cystoscopy can provide a definite diagnosis

Management

  • Bladder training
    • restore continence by re-educating the bladder to a ‘normal’ or improved pattern of voiding and to avoid episodes of incontinence by planned voiding regime
  • Pelvic floor exercise
  • Medication
    • e.g Anticholinergics, β3-adrenoceptor agonist to inhibit involuntary contraction of bladder muscle to prevent urinary incontinence